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        • 产品名称: 防患未然!基因检测帮助预测癌症风险
        • 时间: 2014-12-05
        • 浏览次数: 48

        癌症,一直是健康领域的一个热点问题。随着人们认识的提高,许多人对癌症的了解也都不断加深。例如诱发癌症的因素有很多,例如抽烟、酗酒等等都会极大程度增加人们患上癌症的风险。

        然而,很少有人意识到,基因也是导致癌症的重要因素之一。例如一个名为BRCA的基因一旦出现突变,携带次突变型的女性患上乳腺癌的风险将骤增80%。研究显示,这一基因一旦突变会阻碍DNA的自我修复,从而提高正常细胞癌变的几率。类似的研究还显示这一基因一旦突变,携带者患上卵巢癌和前列腺癌的风险也会相应增加。

        最近由伦敦国王学院和曼彻斯特大学的研究人员进行的一项研究调查了约1034名阿什肯纳兹犹太人,数据显示这类人群中携带BRCA基因突变型的比例远高于平均水平(1/800),达到了四十分之一之多。而英国国内目前有数十万阿什肯纳兹犹太人,其中超过11万是女性。调查结果表明通过提前进行基因检测及一系列干预手段,受试者会大大降低患上癌症的风险。然而与这一结果对应的是56%的调查受访者从未打算接受类似的体检。参与了这一研究的Prof Ian Jacobs认为,政府相关部门应当出台相应的政策,鼓励民众进行此类基因检测。他指出这一措施一方面能够大大提高英国人的健康水平,另一方面也能为政府和民众节省大笔的健康经费。

        作为发展中国家,中国的生命科学才刚刚起步,而与之相关的基因检测也是方兴未艾,许多民众对这一新兴事物都是一知半解。而与之对应的是,未来数年,中国将慢慢步入老龄化社会。因此中国无论是民众还是政府都面临着极其沉重的健康支出。现阶段中国的医疗水平无法与国外发达国家媲美,但是如果政府和医疗系统能够着力加强基因检测等一系列预防措施,或许中国的健康产业将会后来居上。

        详细英文报道:

        More people in high risk groups should have their DNA tested for breast cancer risk genes, a cancer charity says.

        Mutations in BRCA genes can give women up to an 80% chance of developing breast cancer.

        A trial involving 1,034 Ashkenazi Jews, who are at high risk, suggested more than half of their cases were not being picked up under the current NHS guidelines.

        The Eve Appeal charity said wider testing would save lives and money.

        Mutations in BRCA genes stop DNA repairing itself and increase the risk of cancer developing.

        As well as breast cancer, they are also linked to ovarian and prostate cancers.

        More likely

        Around one in 800 people carry a BRCA mutation. But in the Ashkenazi Jewish population the figure reaches one in 40.

        The research team, based at University College London and the University of Manchester, compared the effectiveness of screening all Ashkenazi Jews with just screening those who were identified as being at risk because of their family history.

        They showed that 56% of those carrying a mutation would not have had a test for BRCA based on family history alone.

        The findings, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, show extra screening could save lives and money.

        Breast cancer

        Can more cases of cancer be prevented?

        There are an estimated 114,400 Ashkenazi Jewish women in the UK.

        A separate analysis showed screening all of them over the age of 30 would lead to "a reduction in ovarian cancer and breast cancer by 276 and 508 cases, respectively, at a discounted cost savings of ?3.7m."

        Prof Ian Jacobs, one of the researchers at the University of Manchester, said: "For the Ashkenazi Jewish community specifically, this suggests that population testing for BRCA1/2 mutations could save lives."

        He told the BBC: "This can save lives and money, why wouldn't the NHS want to do something that could achieve both objectives.

        "But the NHS does need to do its own proper evaluation."

        The cost of this kind of screening, both for BRCA and other risk genes, is plummeting.

        The NHS will eventually have to deal with questions about screening the whole population.

        "No-one is suggesting we test the entire UK population for BRCA right now," Prof Ian Jacobs told the BBC.

        He added: "Broadly I think we need to do a lot more research on the consequences, good and bad, of this sort of testing in broader populations.

        The costs of course would be much higher because the prevalence of the mutations is much lower."

        Athena Lamnisos, from The Eve Appeal which funded the trial, said: "Women at increased risk of cancer deserve far more than today's genetic screening process gives them.

        "This study shows that broadening genetic testing beyond just family history saves more lives and more money."

         

        来源:生物谷

         

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